Ireland Budget 2018

Budget 2018 has come and gone without a lot of new measures. Citizens Information has a good overview of all the measures introduced and changed by the government.

The main changes for income tax are the raise on the cutoff point for the standard rate (20%) of 750 euros to 34,550 and the reduction of the two mid-level USC brackets, from 2.5% to 2% and from 5% to 4.75%.

As usual, I’ve updated the spreadsheet for tax calculations which is available here.

Irish Taxes for the Expat (Part 2)

Today I’ll talk about benefits in kind, and how they are taxed and some of the programs in place in Ireland that you can take advantage of.

What are Benefits in Kind?

Benefits in kind are all benefits that an employer might give you that aren’t necessarily part of your regular income. They can range from medical insurance to cars and loans.

The Revenue website states that employees with an income above 1.905 euros, including benefits, will need to be taxed, but employers can give small benefits up to 500 euros per year, as long as they are not cash, free of tax.

We’ll take a look to some of the more common benefits employers might provide.

Medical Insurance

Medical Insurance is a common benefit in kind offered by many employers in Ireland. The employer will pay upfront the premium to the insurance company (VHI, Laya and Irish Life are the most common) and the employee and dependents will be insured for the year. The employee rarely needs to do anything in order to keep the cover going, as long as he/she is employed continuously. Of course, it doesn’t dispense talking with your local human resources department for more information.

In terms of taxes there are two considerations to know:

  • The employee will be taxed on the value of the medical insurance for himself and dependents. As an example imagine the cover for one adult would be 1.500 euros and for one child 800 euros. A family of three with two adults and one child would total 3.800 euros for the year. This value will be added up to the total income of the employee and it will be taxed at the normal marginal tax rate plus USC and PRSI. In the above example if the employee was at the top rate of tax, above 70.000 euros, would pay 52% on the insurance premium, which comes at 1.976 euros. This amount would be deducted from the employee’s salary automatically every pay cycle.
  • The employee is eligible for a tax credit on the medical insurance. Up until 2014, the full premium was eligible for a tax credit at the standard rate (20%). From 2014 onward there is a limit of 1.000 euros per adult and 500 euros per child in terms of premium that can be considered for the tax credit, which is still at the standard tax rate of 20%. Going back to the above example our employee in 2013 would be able to get a tax credit of 760 euros (3.800 x 0.2). From 2014 on the tax credit is reduced to 500 euros [(1.000 + 1.000 + 500) x 0.2]. In order to claim the tax credit, a Form 12 for the respective year needs to be filled and sent to the local Revenue office or it can be done online via myAccount, the online Revenue service. Be aware that the forms might change from year to year and you’ll need to get the correct Form 12. If using myAccount this can be done by editing the tax credits for the year in question. As with most thing Revenue related you can amend tax credits up to 4 years in the past.

It might be useful, since we’re on the topic of medical insurance, to know that the Form 12 is also used to claim any medical expenses that haven’t been covered by medical insurance. These will grant a tax credit at the standard rate of 20%. Please consult the list of medical expenses that can be considered here.

It’s also useful to note that if buying medical insurance directly, typically, the insurer will discount from the premium to pay the amount of tax credit due, but if the insurer doesn’t do it you should claim it with the Revenue.

Bike to Work Scheme

Another popular benefit employers might give employees is the Bike to Work Scheme. This scheme allows for an employee to buy a bicycle and equipment up to 1.000 euros and the amount in question will be deducted by the employer from the employee’s income pre-tax, which means that the employee tax bill will be reduced at their marginal tax rate plus USC and PRSI.

Let’s look at an example. Joe makes 40.000 euros per year from his job. He buys a bicycle and some equipment which cost him 800 euros. His employer takes the burden of paying for it to the shop and in turn, it will deduct the 800 euros from Joe’s salary, which means Joe will only make 39.200 euros now. This reduces his tax bill for the year (less income means less tax) by 392 euros (49% which is the marginal tax rate for Joe’s salary) and his income by 408 euros (which is the remaining balance, used to actually pay for the bike and equipment in a way). What this means for Joe is that he saved almost half of the cost of the bicycle and equipment in this way.

In order to benefit from this, the employee must buy the bike and equipment from a registered store in the scheme and employer must also be registered to provide this benefit. For more information visit

Tax Saver Tickets

This benefit is identical to the Bike to Work scheme, only it applies to other public means of transport that exist in Ireland. Covered services include Irish Rail (including Dublin services like DART and Commuter trains), Bus Eireann (long distance buses), Dublin Bus and Luas (Dublin light rail).

For more information visit


We’ve looked at what I believe are the three most popular benefits that Irish employees have at their disposal in order to reduce their tax bill. I don’t know of many other schemes like these that have a big impact on the personal finances, but let me know if there are any in the comments.

Irish Taxes for the Expat (Part 1)

Today I’m going to talk about what I’ve learned so far about Irish taxes. I’m sure there are plenty of nooks and crannies to explore on the subject, and I’ll provide sources for everything that I’ve found to back them, but I’ll leave readers to interpret those sources by themselves. This is my polite way to say that I won’t be held responsible if the Revenue comes for you 🙂

I’m also talking from the perspective of an expat living in Ireland, so keep that in mind. In other words, this is stuff that I would like someone to have explained to me before moving to Ireland.


The Irish tax system is very progressive. That seems to be a fact. It also seems to work pretty damn well, but this is purely based on my experiences after a few years living and working in Ireland and taking into account that I have other countries where I have lived to compare against.


For the purposes of this post I’ll cover only the Pay As You Earn (PAYE) system, which is the traditional system under which all employees (in the sense that you are working for somebody else, usually a company that pays you a salary) earn income. There are different rules for self employed people.

The bands of tax are very simple. There is a Standard Rate of 20% and a Higher Rate of 40%. That’s it. Only two bands. Seems too good to be true right? It is. As we’ll see further down, matter get more complicated, but nothing compared to my native country I assure you.

How do you know which band you pay tax on? I mentioned earlier that the Irish are very progressive with their tax. The rules then are:

Income up to 33.800 euros -> You pay 20%

All other income above that -> You pay 40%

Some countries put the tax payers on a band according to their absolute income. For example, if you were to make 40.000 euros in income other countries would tax the whole of your income at 40% (assuming the same two bands as the Irish system), making it a not so progressive system.

So far, so good, seems pretty simple.

Consult the official Revenue documentation here.

Universal Social Charge

Universal Social Charge, or USC for short, is one of the most dreaded taxes in Ireland. Why, you might ask? Well, once upon a time, not so long ago, there was no USC. The roar of the Celtic Tiger could be heard throughout the land. But one day the Tiger fell down into a rabbit hole, of all places, and a very big one at that. Once it managed to climb back out of the hole the roar was gone and the USC was on.

How does this tax work? It’s applicable to all income and tax credits don’t have an effect on it. It’s also applicable on other things, such as benefit in kind payments. This tax has been reduced for 2016 and again for 2017. The current rate of tax are the following:

Income up to 12.012 euros -> You pay 0.5%

Income between 12.012 – 18.668 euros -> You pay 2.5%

Income between 18.668 – 70.044 euros -> You pay 5%

Income between 70.044 – 100.000 euros -> You pay 8%

Income above 100.000 -> You pay 8%*

*I believe this value is 10% for self employed. I’m not sure if this changed for 2017.

See more about the USC here.

Tax Credits

The Irish system works by using a number of Tax Credits against your income, in order to assess how much money you owe to the Revenue. The Tax Credits are essentially allowances that reduce the amount of income that is taxable. Under the PAYE system all employees are entitled to a Tax Credit worth 1.650 euros.

Another tax credit that all people are entitled is worth another 1.650 euros. From this we can deduct that the majority of employees in Ireland have at least 3.300 euros worth of tax credits.

Examples of other tax credits include dependent care, single parent or health insurance.

See more about tax credits here.

Pay Related Social Insurance

PRSI is not exactly a tax, since it’s not charged by the Revenue. It’s charged by the Irish Welfare system and the goal is to provide Social Welfare to citizens and residents. The rate for employees is 4% on all income subject to PRSI, which typically is the same as all income subject to USC.

Learn more about PRSI here.

Emergency Tax

Finally, an important note on emergency tax, which typically happens when you start working in Ireland as an expat or change jobs. Let’s imagine you land in Ireland in June and you start working. The Revenue assumes you should be paying tax since January 1st and when they see you haven’t they also assume you’ve been making the amount of your first paycheck since January 1st. This is due to the fact that they haven’t received a P45, which is a statement an employer gives an employee after the contract has finished, for tax purposes. You’re brand new so there’s no P45 in store for you! Relax, there’s a solution, and a simple one at that. Give the Revenue a ring or contact them by email and they’ll update your status. Usually this takes one or two months until solved and when it happens you’ll get all the extra money you might have payed in taxes in the beginning of your employment.

Learn more about emergency tax here.

Find here an Excel spreadsheet to help you simulate the amount of taxes you have to pay.

Ireland Budget 2017 after the dust settled

October 11th was Budget day in Ireland and with it new rules to learn and explore as usual. It’s interesting to note that the fast pace of our modern world (and economy) is reflected on this. I wonder if there ever was a day when we just took for granted that we would pay the same amount of tax, social security and get the same protections. I guess in the really old days the answers would be a lot, none and none, respectively.

I like to be a bit more meticulous and so let’s see what is new for people living in Ireland in 2017. The two biggest changes are the Universal Social Charge (USC) being lowered by half a percentage point on the lower three bands and a 5% tax rebate on first time buyers of new homes.

I plan to talk more in the future about the tax system in Ireland but for now I’ll highlight only these two points.

A bigger overview can be found here.

Most of the measures introduces left most of us very skeptic, especially in matters concerning the housing market crisis that is ongoing. Allegedly, prices on new homes have already risen since the Finance Minister officially announced the measures.

Overall, the tendency of the last two years to lower taxes is continuing, despite a slowing down this year. The 2015 and 2016 budgets were arguably more generous from this point of view. Ireland is still a very progressive system and these numbers, before the Budget for 2016, show that the lowest income people pay very little to no tax, while the tax burden falls on high income earners.

Another interesting point is that according to that article, Irish high income earners (characterized as earning 75.000 euros per year) already pay more effective tax than their Swedish counterparts. I’m not too sure about this, and I would direct anybody interested in this matter to dive on their own (one of these days I’ll whip up my own research about this). What matters though is that (as fame and my own experience would have it) the Irish taxpayer doesn’t get nearly as much bang for their buck as the Swedish one. We can dig into this in another post, but scratching the surface on things such as maternity and paternity leave, childcare and healthcare leaves us in Ireland way behind the Swedes.

Finally, I’ve added an Excel spreadsheet to calculate taxes in Ireland which offer more flexibility than traditional solutions found online, such as adding bonuses, voluntary contributions to pension schemes and passive income from dividends and capital gains. You can find it here.

Why should you be financially independent?

Today I’ll approach a subject that I’ve been researching the last few months, more in depth. I’ve toyed with the notion of being financially independent in the past, not because I don’t like what I do, as I am fortunate enough to have a great job which I actually like, but essentially because I like imagining what would happen if that was ever the case. You are considered to be financially independent when you don’t depend on a fixed source of income that relies on you having to work for someone, a certain number of hours, a certain number of days, for a long period of your life, or as most people would put it, a job.

Googling returns the following quote:

Financial independence is generally used to describe the state of having sufficient personal wealth to live, without having to work actively for basic necessities. For financially independent people, their assets generate income that is greater than their expenses.

Not having a job typically frees up time. What would I do all day? I’m an avid reader, does that mean that I could read hundreds of books per year? Would I get bored after a while? Would I finally set down the laptop and write a novel? Would I build a startup worthy project? Dust off my Japanese and read up on my stockpile of manga? And the million euro question, do I even need all that time to do those things?

The answer to this last question is, most probably, no I don’t. It comes down to prioritizing your life and doing only the things that are worth doing. Having said this, having all the time in the world wouldn’t hurt. I remember reading somewhere (I forgot where) that your best work comes out when you don’t need to get paid for it. For every person the reasons will be different, but there are discernible patterns emerging among all of us:

  1. Not having to work a typical 9 to 5 job
  2. Not being tied to a physical location
  3. Ability to travel more and having more time off

Let’s examine these three points in more detail.

Not having to work a typical 9 to 5 job

Once you’re financially independent, you really don’t need to work for anybody, anymore. It doesn’t mean you can’t do it, it just means that you’ll be able to live more “on your terms”, which roughly translated can be considered being able to not take any job that doesn’t connect with you, doesn’t pay enough for the troubles it creates or just sit back and not work at all. The main point is indeed, the fact that you now have a choice. And having that choice is what most of us fight for during our lives.

Not being tied to a physical location

This one resonates with me. I’m an economic migrant and have been one for a while. Coming from Portugal, a country that doesn’t really have many opportunities for good jobs or decent pay, I have been living on and off from my country for almost 7 years at this point. Between a brief stint in California and my current life in Ireland I wouldn’t expect going back to Portugal in the near future. Having the ability then to choose where to live, is very important to me. I could go live in other countries, stay in Ireland, retire in Portugal, who knows? Even though I like Ireland I wouldn’t mind living in other countries in the future. I believe living abroad is one of toughest things you can do in your life and at the same time (as with all hard things) it’s a great opportunity for self growth and discovery. Picking up a brand new culture, new language, new friends and landscapes will enrich your life and for me it runs the risk of being an addiction and not wanting to go back to the old life in my own country. The important thing then, is that with financial independence, I will have some wiggle room on where I choose to spend my days.

Ability to travel more and having more time off

It’s no secret I love traveling. Most people like it, so  I’m not in any way special or even different. Some like going to resorts, while others are more attracted by the backpacking style of it. If you have to work a job, independent of where you are in the world, you’ll have limited time off. Some of us have it better than others, but make no mistake, with a job comes a bunch of strings attached and one of those is pretty much the limited ability of doing whatever you want with your days (otherwise known as time off). I’m not even considering the paid aspect of paid time off, as most jobs might give you the ability to take time off without being paid, but in my experience those are few or next to none. In conclusion, then, being financially independent will allow you to take control of your holiday plans, which might not even include travel, it could be just spending a few weeks of the year relaxing with your family or friends.

And there you have it. Three reasons that I suspect cover 99% of the reasons why people decide to pursue financial independence and early retirement. There are of course a myriad of other reasons, some people want to spend more time bring their children up, others do it for reasons that are more in line with their ethos, such as rejecting a consumerism life style, but those will differ for each and all of us and in reality they are secondary effects of these main reasons.

As I mentioned before, a secondary effect, if you want, of having more time off, is that you can use that time to actually just…work. Like I mentioned before, maybe there’s a side project that you always wanted to work on, or maybe there’s a passion that you want to turn to full time job and earn a living at. Once you buy that time, you can do it.

In the future I’ll talk more about the why, but mainly the what and how of financial independence, with some details that I hope my European audience finds interesting, so stay tuned!